Antibody Panel to AKT Protein Family - Product Review 10
Putative human homologs of the protooncogene v-akt of the acutely transforming retrovirus AKT8 have been cloned. These protein-serine/threonine kinase proteins have a catalytic domain closely related to both PKA and PKC and have been designated rac (related to A and C kinases), PKB (Protein kinase B) or AKT.
RAC protein kinase family members feature pleckstrin homology (PH) domain at the amino terminus and a protein-serine/ threonine kinase catalytic domain at the carboxy terminus. The Amino terminal domain (referred to as AH-Akt Homology domain) spans from 1-148 amino acids and contains the PH domain, a region found in diverse group of signaling proteins. The PH domain (amino acids 1-106) has been implicated in interactions with other proteins such as G-protein bg subunits, as well as phosphoinositides. The kinase domain is located between residues 148 to 411. These enzymes are activated by diverse ligands such as PGDF, EGF and basic FG in NIH 3T3, Rat-1 or Swiss-3T3 cells.
AKT1 or Protein kinase B alpha is a component of the PI-3 kinase pathway and is activated by phosphorylation at Ser 473 and Thr 308. AKT1 is a key regulator of many signal transduction pathways. AKT1 Exhibits tight control over cell proliferation and cell viability. Overexpression or inappropriate activation of AKT1 is noted in many types of cancer. AKT1 mediates many of the downstream events of PI 3-kinase (a lipid kinase activated by growth factors, cytokines and insulin).
PI 3-kinase recruits AKT1 to the membrane, where it is activated by PDK1 phosphorylation. Once phosphorylated, AKT1 dissociates from the membrane and phosphorylates targets in the cytoplasm and the cell nucleus. AKT1 has two main roles: (i) inhibition of apoptosis; (ii) promotion of proliferation.
AKT2 or Protein kinase B beta is an isoform of the phosphoinositidedependent serine-threonine protein kinase AKT and is enriched in insulin-responsive tissues and has been implicated in the metabolic actions of the hormone. AKT2 is a putative oncogene encoding a protein belonging to a subfamily of serine/threonine kinases containing SH2-like (Src homology 2-like) domains. Furthermore, AKT2 was shown to be amplified and overexpressed in 2 of 8 ovarian carcinoma cell lines and 2 of 15 primary ovarian tumors. Overexpression of AKT2 contributes to the malignant phenotype of a subset of human ductal pancreatic cancers. AKT2 is a general protein kinase capable of phophorylating several known proteins. AKT2 mediates many of the downstream events of PI 3-kinase (a lipid kinase activated by growth factors, cytokines and insulin). PI 3-kinase recruits AKT2 to the membrane, where it is activated by PDK1 phosphorylation. Once phosphorylated, AKT2 dissociates from the membrane and phosphorylates targets in the cytoplasm and the cell nucleus. AKT2 has two main roles: (i) inhibition of apoptosis; (ii) promotion of proliferation.
AKT3 or Protein Kinase B gamma (RAC-PK-g, rat 454-aa, mouse/human 479-aa) is highly related to other members of RAC protein kinase family. It is abundantly expressed in kidney, lung, and brain, but weakly in heart, testis, and liver. It is cytoplasmic and membrane associated after cell stimulation leading to its translocation. AKT3 is alternatively spliced to Gamma-1 and -2 isoform. It is phosphorylated on Thr and Ser, which are required for full activity. AKT3 is involved in regulation of cellular growth.
Antibody Tools for Detection of AKT Family Members
Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies specific for AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3 and for the phosphorylated forms are available at Acris Antibodies. For more informations like host, isotype, species cross-reactivity etc. see table 1 at the end of this review.
Anti- AKT, AKT1 (PKB alpha, RAC), AKT2 (PKB beta), AKT3 (PKB gamma, PKBG) antibody
|Rabbit||Aff - Purified||African clawed frog, Bov, Can, Chk, Hu, Ms, Por, Rt||WB||
50 µg / €330.00
|AVIVA Systems Biology|
|Rabbit||IgG||Purified||Bov, Can, Chk, GP, Hst, Hu, Mky, Ms, Por, Rb, Rt, Sh, Xen||E, WB||
0.4 ml / €350.00
|Acris Antibodies GmbH|