Alternative names for CD40 antibody
TNFRSF5, CDw40, Bp50, , Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 5, B-cell surface antigen CD40, CD40L receptor
Frozen Sections (C), Functional assay (FN), Flow Cytometry (F), Paraffin Sections (P), Western blot / Immunoblot (WB), Enzyme Immunoassay (E), Immunoprecipitation (IP), ELISA (detection) (E(detection)), Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence (ICC/IF), Dot blot (Dot), Radial Immunodiffusion (RID)
Background of CD40 antibody
CD40 and its ligand CD154 are members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) and TNF families, respectively, that play key roles in signaling pathways mediating cell growth, survival and differentiation in B-lymphocytes (reviewed in Quezada et al 2004). The CD40 receptor is a 45-50 kDa glycoprotein and is expressed on the surface of B-lymphocytes, some activated T-cells, monocytes, follicular dendritic cells, basal epithelial cells, and in some epithelial and non-epithelial carcinomas. The functions of CD40 have been most extensively studied in B-cells. Ligation of B CD40 by CD154, expressed on activated T cells, stimulates B cell proliferation, differentiation, isotype switching, upregulation of surface molecules contributing to antigen presentation, development of the germinal center, and the humoral memory response. Several distinct structural motifs in the CD40 cytoplasmic domain regaulate various CD40 signaling pathways. A major CD40 signaling pathway activated from CD154 ligand binding is the canonical pathway to the transcription factor family NF-kB, a family of genes mediating immune and inflammatory responses. Although CD40 has been extensively studied as a plasma membrane-associated growth factor membrane receptor. it has also been identified in the cytoplasm and nucleus of normal and neoplastic B-lymphoid cells (Lin-Lee et al. 2006). Other growth factor receptors, including EGF, FGF, and TGF-B have also been identified in the nuclus. It is thought that plasma membrane receptor signaling may be followed by nuclear migration of signaling pathway components. The presence of CD40 in the nucleus of activated normal B lymphocytes and neoplastic B-lymphoid cells suggests that CD40 may play a more complex role in regulating essential growth and survival pathways in B-lymphocytes than previously thought.
1. The SCID but not the RAG-2 gene product is required for S mu-S epsilon heavy chain class switching: A. Rolink, et al.; Immunity 5, 319 (1996).
2. Characterization of immature B cells by a novel monoclonal antibody, by turnover and by mitogen reactivity: A.G. Rolink, et al.; Eur. J. Immunol. 28, 3738 (1998).
3. Anti-CD40 antibody induces antitumor and antimetastatic effects: the role of NK cells: J.G. Turner, et al.; J.Immunol. 166, 89 (2001).
4. Therapeutic activity of agonistic monoclonal antibodies against CD40 in a chronic autoimmune inflammatory process: C. Mauri, et al.; Nat. Med. 6, 673 (2000).
5. Ovarian insufficiency and early pregnancy loss induced by activation of the innate immune system: A. Erlebacher, et al.; J. Clin. Invest. 114, 39 (2004).
6. CD154 is a negative regulator of autoaggressive CD8+ T cells in type 1 diabetes: C.M. McGregor, et al.; PNAS 101, 9345 (2004).
7. IRF-7 is the master regulator of type-I interferon-dependent immune responses: K. Honda, et al.; Nature 434, 772 (2005).
8. In vivo and in vitro regulation of type I IFN synthesis by synergistic effects of CD40 and type II IFN: J.A. Greene, et al.; J. Immunol. 176, 5995 (2006).
9. IL-10- and IL-12-independent down-regulation of allergic sensitization by stimulation of CD40 signaling: P.W. Hellings, et al.; J. Immunol. 177, 5138 (2006).
10. Agonistic Anti-CD40 Antibody Profoundly Suppresses the Immune Response to Infection with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus: C. Bartholdy, et al.; J. Immunol. 178, 1662 (2007).