Alternative names for S100A1 antibody
S100-A1, S100A, S100 alpha, S100 calcium-binding protein A1,S-100 protein subunit alpha,S-100 protein alpha chain, FocusOn041
Enzyme Immunoassay (E), Immunoprecipitation (IP), Western blot / Immunoblot (WB), Paraffin Sections (P), ELISA (capture) (E(capture)), ELISA (detection) (E(detection)), Frozen Sections (C), Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence (ICC/IF), Radioimmunoassay (R), Flow Cytometry (F), Dot blot (Dot), Radial Immunodiffusion (RID)
Background of S100A1 antibody
S-100 protein derived from brain tissue is an acidic calcium-binding protein with molecular weight of about 21kDa. In human brain tissue S-100 protein is mainly presented as two isoforms - betabeta homodimer (S-100b) and alphabeta heterodimer (S-100a). Because of its predominant location in astroglial cells S-100 protein can be used as a sensitive and reliable marker for central nervous system injury. Structural damage of glial cells causes leakage of S-100 protein into the extracellular matrix and into cerebrospinal fluid, further releasing into the bloodstream. Measurements of S-100 protein in patient serum samples are useful in monitoring of traumatic brain injury, ischemic brain damage after circulatory arrests, and in diagnosis and prognosis of clinical outcome in acute stroke. Although predominant among the water-soluble brain proteins, S-100 is also found in a variety of other tissues. S-100 is an intracellular protein that weakly binds calcium. It binds zinc very tightly, however, and this appears to increase the affinity of the protein for calcium. Distinct binding sites, with different affinities, exist for both ions on each monomer. Physiological concentrations of potassium ion antagonize the binding of both divalent cations, especially affecting high-affinity calcium-binding sites.
General / background references:Joshi MG et al. The role of immunocytochemical markers in the differential diagnosis of proliferative and neoplastic lesions of the breast. Mod Pathol 9:57-62 (1996).