Ghrelin and Ghrelin Receptor - FocusOn 017

Introduction

Growth hormone (GH), controls body growth, carbohydrate-protein-lipid metabolism and water-electrolyte balance. GH-release is stimulated by the GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and inhibited by somatostatin. GH secretagogues (GHSs) are synthetic compounds that are potent stimulators of GH release. Special GHSs, working through a novel orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), the GHS receptor (GHS-R) have emerged as strong regulators of GH release. The endogenous ligand for the GHS-R, Ghrelin (\'ghre\' is the Proto-Indo-European root of the word "grow"), has recently been purified and identified.

The rat and human mature Ghrelin (28-aa, differing in just two amino acids) are produced from 117 aa precursor peptides that have a signal peptide followed by the ghrelin sequence. Two isoforms of mRNA for pro-ghrelin are produced from the gene by an alternative splicing. One mRNA encodes the ghrelin precursor, and another encodes a des-Gln14-ghrelin precursor. Des-Gln14-ghrelin is identical to ghrelin, except for the deletion of Gln14. The activity of both ghrelins is the same but des-Gln14-ghrelin is only present in low amounts in the stomach, indicating that ghrelin is the major active form. Ghrelin has an unusual modification: the Ser3 residue is n-octanoylated. This is essential for biological activity. Ghrelin is the first known example of a bioactive peptide modified by an acyl acid.

There is no structural homology between ghrelin and peptide GHSs (GHRP-6 or hexarelin). Ghrelin has partial sequence homology with motilin. Rat ghrelin is expressed in the stomach, small and large intestines, and brain regions that are involved in the regulation of food intake. Normal adult human plasma samples contain 100-120 fmol Ghrelin/ml. Both ghrelin and GHS-R expression is detected in the heart, suggesting that ghrelin might have some cardiovascular effects. Ghrelin administration stimulates GH secretion but also causes weight gain by increasing food intake and reduction in fat utilization, and anti-ghrelin IgG administration suppressed feeding.



Antibody Tools for the Detection of Ghrelin and Ghrelin Receptor

Acris Antibodies offers a range of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to Ghrelin and Ghrelin Receptor, suitable for immunological applications like Western blotting, ELISA or immunohistochemistry. A panel of control peptides (Des-Gln14-Ghrelin, Ghrelin, Ser3 acetylated and non-acetylated Ghrelin) is also available.



AP09635PU-N Ghrelin Antibody staining of Paraffin Embedded Human Placentaat 2µg/ml. Steamed antigen retrieval with citrate buffer pH 6, AP-staining.

Fig. 1

SP4591P GHSR antibody staining of Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Pituitary Anterior.

Fig. 2

Fig. 1: AP09635PU-N Ghrelin antibody staining of Paraffin Embedded Human Placenta at 2µg/ml. Steamed antigen retrieval with citrate buffer pH 6, AP-staining.

Fig. 2: SP4591P GHSR antibody staining of Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Pituitary Anterior.



Available antibody panel to Ghrelin and Ghrelin Receptor: Ghrelin antibody, Ghrelin preproprotein antibody, Ghrelin Receptor antibody (GHS-R antibody)



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Primary Antibodies

Catalog No. Host Iso. Clone Pres. React. Applications  

Ghrelin / GHRL (N-term) antibody

Immunohistochemistry on paraffin sections: Swine stomach, stained with AM26736PU-N. Mouse IgG1 1ML-1D7 Purified Hu, Por C, P
0.1 mg / €330.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Ghrelin / GHRL (1-118) antibody

Human Colon, Epithelium: Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) Mouse IgG2a 2F4 Purified Hu E, P, WB
50 µg / €530.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Ghrelin / GHRL (1-118) antibody

Human Colon, Epithelium: Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) Mouse IgG2a 4B8 Purified Hu E, P, WB
50 µg / €530.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Ghrelin / GHRL (103-117) antibody

Human Placenta (formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded) stained with GHRL antibody AP22499PU-N at 2 µg/ml followed by biotinylated anti-goat IgG secondary antibody, alkaline phosphatase-streptavidin and chromogen. Goat Aff - Purified Elephant, Hst, Hu, Mky, Ms, Por, Prim, Rt E, P
50 µg / €470.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Ghrelin / GHRL (N-term) antibody

Human Pancreas (formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded) stained with GHRL antibody AP22818PU-N followed by biotinylated goat anti-rabbit IgG secondary antibody, alkaline phosphatase-streptavidin and chromogen. Rabbit Aff - Purified Bear, Fe, Hu, Mky, Por P
50 µg / €470.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Ghrelin / GHRL antibody

Ghrelin / GHRL Rabbit Serum Hu C, E, WB
0.2 ml / €400.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Ghrelin receptor / GHSR (C-term) antibody

Immunohistochemistry analysis in formalin fixed and paraffin embedded human uterus tissue reacted with Ghrelin receptor / GHSR Antibody (C-term) Cat.-No AP51836PU-N followed by peroxidase conjugation of the secondary antibody and DAB staining. Rabbit Ig Aff - Purified Hu, Ms P, WB
0.4 ml / €370.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Proteins & Growth Factors

Catalog No. Species Pres. Purity Source  

Ghrelin / GHRL (24-117, His-tag)

Recombinant human Ghrelin (24-117 aa), His-tagged: 15% SDS-PAGE (3 µg) Human Purified > 90 % by SDS - PAGE E. coli
0.5 mg / €670.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Ghrelin / GHRL (24-117, His-tag)

Recombinant human Ghrelin (24-117 aa), His-tagged: 15% SDS-PAGE (3 µg) Human Purified > 90 % by SDS - PAGE E. coli
0.1 mg / €250.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

9 Item(s)

per page
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