Sodium Glucose Cotransporter (SGLT-1, -2, and -3) Antibodies - FocusOn 013

Introduction

Glucose is an important source of energy for all living cells. Glucose is transported across the cells by a family of energy-dependent and Na+-dependent Glucose co-transporters (SGLTs) and by facilitative glucose transporters (Gluts or SLC2A family). Molecular cloning of SGLTs has identified a family of closely related genes that encodes at least 14 proteins (Glut1 - Glut14).

The kidneys play a major role in the regulation of glucose levels. Kidneys filter approx. 180 g of glucose per day from the blood, and this is mostly reabsorbed back into the blood in the proximal tubules. Typically, glucose is first absorbed within the epithelium by specific transporter proteins, the SGLTs in the brush-border membrane and then it is transported out of the cell across the basolateral membranes by GLUTs.

At least 3 members of SGLTs (SGLT1-3) have been cloned and characterized from various species, and at least 6 other poorly studied proteins are also expressed in the kidney. Individual members of this family have identical predicted secondary structures with up to 15 transmembrane domains. SGLT1-3 genes code for proteins of approx 659-672 residues (calculated size of ~75 kDa). Both N and C-termini are predicted to be extracellular. There is approx 60-70% homology between SGLT1-3. SGLTs transport a-methyl-D-glucoside (a-MDG), a non-metabolized model substrate, in Na-dependent manner. SGLT1 does not discriminate between a-MDG, glucose, and galactose. SGLT2/3 do not transport D-galactose efficiently.

SGLT1

SGLT1/NAGT or SLC5A1/NAGT (rat/mouse 665 aa; human 664 aa, chromosome 22q13.1, ~75 kDa) is a high affinity, Na+-coupled, intestinal Glucose transporter responsible for active glucose transport across the brush border membrane. In the kidney, SGLT1 is expressed in proximal tubule Sq1 segments. It is also expressed in the intestine. Defects in the SGLT1 gene have been implicated in congenital glucose-galactose malabsorption syndrome (GGM).

SGLT2

SGLT2/SLC5A2 (rat/mouse 670 aa; human 672 aa, chromosome 16p11.2) is the low affinity, high capacity Na+-glucose transporter located in the S1 segments of proximal tubules. It is ~60% identical with SGLT1. SGLT2 mediates saturable Na+-dependent and phlorizin-sensitive glucose transport. In contrast with SGLT1, SGLT2 does not transport D-galactose. Defects in SGLT2 may be associated with renal glycosuria.

SGLT3

SGLT3/SLC54 (pig 660 aa; mouse 656/660/616 aa; human 659 aa, chromosome 22), originally named SAAT1 or pSGLT2, was initially identified in the LLC-Pk1 cell line derived from pig renal epithelium. It is also a low affinity Na+-glucose transporter. It is expressed in kidney, intestine, liver, skeletal muscle and spleen. Like SGLT2, SGLT3 has a low affinity for sugars, and is highly selective for D-glucose and low affinity for D-galactose.

SGLT4

SGLT4/SLC5A9 (rat 685 aa; human 702 aa, chromosome 1p32) was originally isolated from human small intestinal full-length cDNA libraries, and functionally characterized in vitro. Model experiments demonstrate that SGLT4 is a low affinity transporter, with experiments demonstrating the rank order of naturally occurring sugar analogs for the inhibition of alpha-methyl-D-glucopyranoside (AMG) transport to be D-mannose >> D-glucose > D-fructose > D-galactose. SGLT4 appears to possess unique physiological functions (i.e., absorption and/or reabsorption of mannose and fructose, in addition to glucose.

SGLT5

SGLT5/SLC5A10 (pig 597 aa; mouse 596 aa; human 596 aa, chromosome 17p11.2) is an additional member of the sodium transporter family, with only limited characterization of this protein reported. Studies regarding expression in the jejunum, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle of pigs have appeared in the literature, as well as the original cloning and expression of the original gene from bovine.

SLC5A11/ KST1

A human gene named  SLC5A11 / KST1 encodes the Sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter  (rabbit 674 aa, human 675 aa chromosome 16p12-p11). It is an ortholog of rabbit kidney SGLT or rkST, expressed in brain, heart, muscle, kidney, liver and placenta. Due to its wide tissue expression and chromosomal location, mutations in KST1 have been implicated in ICCA (infantile convulsion and choreoathetosis) and BFIC (benign familial infantile convulsions).

 


Fig. 1: AP00365PU-N SGLT3 antibody staining of Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded Human Liver Tissue.

 

Fig. 1: AP00365PU-N SGLT3 antibody staining of Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded Human Liver Tissue.

 

AP00367PU-N SGLT4 antibody staining of Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded Human Brain Cortex Tissue.

Fig. 2

AP00368PU-N KST1 antibody staining of Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded Human Brain Cortex Tissue.

Fig. 3

Fig. 2: AP00367PU-N SGLT4 antibody staining of Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded Human Brain Cortex Tissue.

Fig. 3: AP00368PU-N KST1 antibody staining of Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded Human Brain Cortex Tissue.



Antibody Tools for the Detection of Sodium Glucose Cotransporters

Acris Antibodies offers a panel of polyclonal antibodies to SGLT-Family which can be used in Western blotting or other immunological applications. A range of corresponding control peptides is also available.



Available antibody panel to SGLT: SGLT-1 antibody (SGLT1 antibody), SGLT-2 antibody (SGLT2 antibody), SGLT-3 antibody (SGLT3 antibody), SGLT-4 antibody (SGLT4 antibody), SGLT-5 antibody (SGLT5 antibody), KST1 antibody

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Primary Antibodies

Catalog No. Host Iso. Clone Pres. React. Applications  

SGLT1 / SLC5A1 antibody

Western blot analysis of SGLT-1 expression in Jurkat cell lysate. Rabbit Purified Hu C, WB
0.1 mg / €370.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

SGLT1 / SLC5A1 antibody

Human Colon (formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded) stained with SLC5A1 antibody AP22846PU-N at 5 µg/ml followed by biotinylated goat anti-rabbit IgG secondary antibody, alkaline phosphatase-streptavidin and chromogen. Rabbit Purified Hu P, WB
50 µg / €470.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

SGLT1 / SLC5A1 antibody

Small intestine, Human: Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) Goat Purified Hu P
50 µg / €470.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

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