Stem Cell Markers: Antibodies to Neural Stem Cells - FocusOn 105

Multipotent self-renewing neural stem cells are present throughout the development of the central nervous system, persist into adulthood in defined locations and can be derived from more primitive embryonic stem cells. Acris Antibodies offer an extensive range of antibodies for stem cell research, including selected antibodies to neural stem cell related proteins:

Nestin

Nestin (NES) is an intermediate filament protein that was first identified in 1985. It is expressed predominantly in stem cells of the central nervous system in the neural tube. Upon terminal neural differentiation, nestin is downregulated and replaced by neurofilaments.

Fig. 1: Immunofluorescence staining of the human glioma cell line U251 with monoclonal nestin antibody Cat.-No. BM4546, nuclei stained with bisbenzimide (blue)
Fig. 1: Immunofluorescence staining of the human glioma cell line U251 with monoclonal nestin antibody Cat.-No. BM4546, nuclei stained with bisbenzimide (blue)
Fig. 2: Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human kidney stained with nestin antibody Cat.-No. AM20271PU-S
Fig. 2: Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human kidney stained with nestin antibody Cat.-No. AM20271PU-S

Noggin

Noggin is an antagonist of bone morphogenetic proteins. Inhibiting BMP signaling with noggin is sufficient to accelerate long-term hippocampal cell self-renewal, increased proliferation, and multipotential differentiation.

Vimentin

The intermediate filament protein vimentin is found in different non-epithelial cells, especially in a variety of mesenchymal cell types like fibroblasts, endothelial cells and is detected in many cells from the neural crest and neural stem cells of the CNS. In addition, it is the first to be expressed during cell differentiation. Vimentin is present in many different neoplasms but is particularly expressed in those originated from mesenchymal cells. Sarcomas e.g., fibrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, angiosarcoma, and leio- and rhabdomyosarcoma, as well as lymphomas, malignant melanoma and schwannoma, are virtually always vimentin positive. Mesoderm derived carcinomas like renal cell carcinoma, adrenal cortical carcinoma and adenocarcinomas from endometrium and ovary usually express vimentin. Thyroid carcinomas are also vimentin positive. Any low-differentiated carcinoma may express some vimentin.

Fig. 3: Human skin (FFPE) stained with vimentin antibody Cat.-No. AP08378PU-N; biotinylated secondary antibody, alkaline phosphatase-streptavidin and chromogen
Fig. 3: Human skin (FFPE) stained with vimentin antibody Cat.-No. AP08378PU-N; biotinylated secondary antibody, alkaline phosphatase-streptavidin and chromogen
Fig. 4: Immunofluorescence staining of chicken postnatal erythrocytes: tubulin (red) was stained with anti-alpha-tubulin clone TU-01 Cat.-No. BM753S, vimentin (green) with anti-vimentin clone VI-10 Cat.-No. SM3166P; Nuclei are stained with DAPI (blue)
Fig. 4: Immunofluorescence staining of chicken postnatal erythrocytes: tubulin (red) was stained with anti-alpha-tubulin clone TU-01 Cat.-No. BM753S, vimentin (green) with anti-vimentin clone VI-10 Cat.-No. SM3166P; Nuclei are stained with DAPI (blue)
Fig. 5: Immunofluorescence staining of 3T3 mouse embryonal fibroblast cell line with anti-vimentin (VI-01) Dy-547 Cat.-No. SM3128D5. Nuclei are stained with DAPI (blue)
Fig. 5: Immunofluorescence staining of 3T3 mouse embryonal fibroblast cell line with anti-vimentin (VI-01) Dy-547 Cat.-No. SM3128D5. Nuclei are stained with DAPI (blue)
Fig.6: Detection of endogenous vimentin: Whole cell lysates of serum starved tumor cells were used. The immunoblot was probed with monoclonal vimentin antibody clone 11H6 Cat.-No. AM00158PU-N: Lane 1: HeLa; Lane 2: HepG2; Lane 3: HEK293; Lane 4: SH-SY5Y; Lane 5: MDCK; Lane 6: PC12; Lane 7: CMT 93; Lane 8: Neuro 2A; Lane 9: 3T3
Fig.6: Detection of endogenous vimentin: Whole cell lysates of serum starved tumor cells were used. The immunoblot was probed with monoclonal vimentin antibody clone 11H6 Cat.-No. AM00158PU-N: Lane 1: HeLa; Lane 2: HepG2; Lane 3: HEK293; Lane 4: SH-SY5Y; Lane 5: MDCK; Lane 6: PC12; Lane 7: CMT 93; Lane 8: Neuro 2A; Lane 9: 3T3

Transcriptional factors: Pax6, Sox2, HMGA2, MSX1, NeuroD1

Pax6 is a transcription factor with important functions in the development of the eye, nose, central nervous system and pancreas. It competes with Pax4 in binding to a common element in glucagon, insulin and somatostatin promoters. It regulates specification of the ventral neuron subtypes by establishing the correct progenitor domains. Pax6 Isoform 5a appears to function as a molecular switch that specifies target genes.

Sox2 is a transcription factor that is essential to maintain self-renewal of undifferentiated embryonic stem cells. Sox2 is expressed in multipotent neural stem cells at all stages of ontogeny.

Another transcriptional factor which is highly expressed during embryogenesis and in some cancers is HMGA2, which belongs to the high mobility group family and contains 3AT hook DNA-binding domains. It has been shown that HMGA2 expression is high in fetal neural stem cells (Nishino, 2008).

Homeobox protein MSX1, also called Hox7, functions as a transcriptional repressor.

As a transcriptional activator, the differentiation factor NeuroD1 or Neurogenic differentiation factor 1 acts during neurogenesis and has been suggested to have a function in neuronal differentiation. The basic-helix–loop-helix (bHlH) protein requires for efficient DNA binding dimerization with another bHLH protein. It regulates insulin gene expression by binding to the insulin gene E-box (Breslin, 2003; Malecki, 2003).

Fig. 7: Western blot of Pax6 on rat whole eye extract using Cat.-No. SP5290P
Fig. 7: Western blot of Pax6 on rat whole eye extract using Cat.-No. SP5290P
Fig. 8: Brain (cortex) tissue (FFPE) using Sox2 antibody Cat.-No. AP08354PU-N
Fig. 8: Brain (cortex) tissue (FFPE) using Sox2 antibody Cat.-No. AP08354PU-N
Fig. 9: Human lung carcinoma tissue (FFPE) reacted with Sox2 antibody Cat.-No. AM11050PU-N
Fig. 9: Human lung carcinoma tissue (FFPE) reacted with Sox2 antibody Cat.-No. AM11050PU-N

References

Nishino J et al: Hmga2 promotes neural stem cell self-renewal in young but not old mice by reducing p16Ink4a and p19Arf expression.
Cell, Oct 2008; 135(2):227-39. [PMID 18957199 ]
Breslin MB et al: NeuroD1/E47 regulates the E-box element of a novel zinc finger transcription factor, IA-1, in developing nervous system.
J Biol Chem, Oct 2003; 278(40): 38991-7. [PMID 12890672 ]
Malecki MT et al: The Ala45Thr polymorphism of BETA2/NeuroD1 gene and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Polish population.
Acta Diabetol, 2003; 40(2): 109-111. [PMID 12861411 ]

Further readings

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Primary Antibodies

Catalog No. Host Iso. Clone Pres. React. Applications  

Nestin (C-term) antibody

Human kidney stained with anti-Nestin antibody AM20271PU Rabbit IgG SP103 Purified Hu P, WB
1 ml / €730.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Nestin (C-term) antibody

Human kidney stained with anti-Nestin antibody AM20271PU Rabbit IgG SP103 Purified Hu P, WB
0.1 ml / €290.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Nestin antibody

Human liver carcinoma stained with anti-nestin antibody Rabbit IgG Aff - Purified Hu P
1 ml / €520.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Nestin antibody

Human liver carcinoma stained with anti-nestin antibody Rabbit IgG Aff - Purified Hu P
0.1 ml / €190.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Nestin (1484-1500) antibody

AP07829PU-N Nestin antibody staining of Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Human Kidney at 5 µg/ml Rabbit Aff - Purified Bov, Can, Hst, Hu, Macaque, Ms, Rb, Rt E, ICC/IF, P, WB
50 µg / €470.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Noggin antibody

Brain, cerebellum: Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) Rabbit IgG Aff - Purified Hu, Ms, Rt E, P, WB
50 µg / €470.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

SOX2 (N-term) antibody

AM09112PU SOX2 antibody staining of Human newborn brain. Rabbit IgG SP76 Purified Hu P, WB
1 ml / €730.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

SOX2 (N-term) antibody

AM09112PU SOX2 antibody staining of Human newborn brain. Rabbit IgG SP76 Purified Hu P, WB
0.1 ml / €290.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

SOX2 (N-term) antibody

Human skin stained with anti-SOX2 antibody Rabbit Purified Hu P
1 ml / €520.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

SOX2 (N-term) antibody

Human skin stained with anti-SOX2 antibody Rabbit Purified Hu P
0.1 ml / €190.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

SOX2 (N-term) antibody

Figure 1. AP08354PU-N SOX2 antibody staining of Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Human Brain, Cortex at 1/50 followed by biotinylated Goat anti-Rabbit IgG secondary antibody, alkaline phosphatase-streptavidin and chromogen. Rabbit IgG Aff - Purified Hu P, WB
50 µl / €470.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Vimentin antibody

Figure 1. Immunofluorescence staining of 3T3 mouse embryonal fibroblast cell line with anti-Vimentin (VI-01) Dyomics 547. Nuclei are stained with DAPI (blue). Mouse IgM VI-01 Purified All Species ICC/IF, WB
0.1 mg / €240.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Vimentin antibody

Figure 1. Immunofluorescence staining of chicken postnatal erythrocytes. Tubulin (red) was stained with anti-alpha-tubulin (TU-01; BM753S), vimentin (green) with anti-Vimentin (VI-10). Nuclei are stained with DAPI (blue). Mouse IgM VI-10 Purified Chk, Hu, Por, Rt ICC/IF, IP, P, WB
0.1 mg / €240.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Vimentin antibody

Human melanoma stained with anti-Vimentin Antibody Cat.-No AM11201PU (Clone SP20). Rabbit SP20 Supernatant Hu F, P, WB
1 ml / €550.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Vimentin antibody

Human melanoma stained with anti-Vimentin Antibody Cat.-No AM11201PU (Clone SP20). Rabbit SP20 Supernatant Hu F, P, WB
0.1 ml / €290.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Vimentin (incl. pos. control) antibody

Detection of endogenous Vimentin: Whole cell lysates of serum starved tumor cells (20.000 cells per lane) were applied to SDS-PAGE and transferred to a PVDF membrane. The immunoblot was probed with mab Vim-11H6 (0.5 µg/ ml) for 1h at RT and developed by ECL (exp. time: 30 sec). lane 1: HeLa; lane 2: HepG2; lane 3: HEK293; lane 4: SH-SY5Y; lane 5: MDCK; lane 6: PC12; lane 7: CMT 93; lane 8: Neuro 2A; lane 9: 3T3 Mouse IgG 11H6 Purified Can, Hu, Ms WB
0.1 mg / €430.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Vimentin antibody

Vimentin Mouse IgG2a VIM 3B4 Purified Amph, Bov, Can, Chk, Hu, Mky C, E, ICC/IF, P, WB
50 µg / €310.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Vimentin antibody

Vimentin Mouse IgG2a VIM 3B4 FITC Amph, Bov, Can, Chk, Hu, Mky C, E, F, ICC/IF, P, WB
0.25 ml / €390.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

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