Antibodies to Claudins - Product Review 15

Introduction

Epithelia are sheets of cells that provide the interface between masses of cells and a cavity or a lumen. The portion of the cell exposed to the lumen is called its apical surface. The rest of the cell (i.e., its sides and base) make up the basolateral surface. Tight junctions (TJs) seal adjacent epithelial cells in a narrow band just beneath their apical surface.

Tight junctions perform two vital functions:

1. They prevent the passage of molecules and ions through the space between cells. So materials must actually enter the cells (by diffusion or active transport) in order to pass through the tissue. This pathway provides control over what substances are allowed through.

2. They block the movement of integral membrane proteins between the apical and basolateral surfaces of the cell. Thus the special functions of each surface, for example receptor-mediated endocytosis at the apical surface or exocytosis at the basolateral surface can be preserved.

TJs appear as a network of continuous and anastomosing filaments on the protoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. The molecular architecture of TJ strands has been described in recent years. The proteins involved in the formation of TJs have been divided into peripheral membrane proteins, such as zonulae occludens (ZO)-1, ZO-2 and ZO-3, and others and integral membrane proteins ,e.g. Claudins. Claudins, a family comprising 24 members, are the main family of proteins that make up the TJs. The tightness of individual TJ strands in situ is determined by the various combinations of Claudin family members. Their protein structure, which is uniform among family members, contains four transmembrane domains with amino- and carboxyl-termini in the cytoplasm and two extracellular loops. Recent studies have shown that changes in the family of Claudins occur during tumor initiation and growth, however no causal link between Claudin expression and cancer has been demonstrated. Another example of disturbed Claudin function is profound deafness resulting from a mutation of the human gene encoding Claudin 14: it has been suggested, that the TJ complex at the apex of the reticular lamina requires Claudin 14 as a cation-restrictive barrier to maintain the proper ionic composition of the fluid surrounding the basolateral surface of outer hair cells.

Claudin-16 is found primarily in the kidneys, specifically in the thick ascending limb of Henle, where it acts as either an intercellular pore or ion concentration sensor to regulate the paracellular resorption of magnesium ions. Defects in the corresponding gene are a cause of primary hypomagnesemia, which is characterized by massive renal magnesium wasting with hypomagnesemia and hypercalciuria, resulting in nephrocalcinosis and renal failure.

So far, much work remains to be done in the characterization of Claudin functions in normal physiology and during pathologic processes.

Antibody Panel to Claudins

Acris Antibodies offers a range of polyclonal antibodies to Claudins which can be used for immunohistochemical applications on frozen and Paraffin embedded tissues or Western blotting (see pictures and table of antibody panel below).

Picture Gallery

Formalin-fixed, Paraffin-embedded human skin stained with anti-Claudin 1 antibody DP153 using peroxidase-conjugate and AEC : membrane staining of epithelial cells.

Formalin-fixed, Paraffin-embedded human skin stained with anti-Claudin 1 antibody DP153 using peroxidase-conjugate and AEC : membrane staining of epithelial cells.

Formalin-fixed, Paraffin-embedded human Colon carcinoma stained with anti-Claudin 2 antibody DP154: membrane staining in colon carcinoma cells.

Formalin-fixed, Paraffin-embedded human Colon carcinoma stained with anti-Claudin 2 antibody DP154: membrane staining in colon carcinoma cells.

Formalin-fixed, Paraffin-embedded human small intestine using anti-Claudin3 antibody DP155 (peroxidase-conjugate and AEC): membrane staining of epithelial cells.

Formalin-fixed, Paraffin-embedded human small intestine using anti-Claudin3 antibody DP155 (peroxidase-conjugate and AEC): membrane staining of epithelial cells.

Formalin-fixed, Paraffin-embedded human ovarian CA using anti-Claudin 4 antibody DP156, (peroxidase-conjugate and AEC): membrane staining of tumor cells.

Formalin-fixed, Paraffin-embedded human ovarian CA using anti-Claudin 4 antibody DP156, (peroxidase-conjugate and AEC): membrane staining of tumor cells.

Formalin-fixed, Paraffin-embedded human colon using anti-Claudin 5 antibody DP157 (peroxidase-conjugate and AEC): membrane staining of tumor cells.

Formalin-fixed, Paraffin-embedded human colon using anti-Claudin 5 antibody DP157 (peroxidase-conjugate and AEC): membrane staining of tumor cells.

 

Literature

Tokés AM., Kulka J., Paku S. et al.Claudin-1, -3 and -4 proteins and mRNA expression in benign and malignant breast lesions: a research study.Breast Cancer Res, 2005, 7: R296-R305.

Ben-Yosef T., Belyantseva IA., Saunders TL. et al.Claudin 14 knockout mice, a model for autosomal recessive deafness DFNB29, are deaf due to cochlear hair cell degeneration.Human Molecular Genetics, 2003, Vol. 12, No. 16: 2049-2061

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Primary Antibodies

Catalog No. Host Iso. Clone Pres. React. Applications  

Claudin-1 / CLDN1 (C-term) antibody

Human skin stained with Anti-Claudin 1 antibody Rabbit Purified Can, Hu, Mky, Ms, Rt P, WB
1 ml / €490.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Claudin-1 / CLDN1 (C-term) antibody

Human skin stained with Anti-Claudin 1 antibody Rabbit Purified Can, Hu, Mky, Ms, Rt P, WB
0.1 ml / €180.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Claudin-1 / CLDN1 antibody

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyzes of Claudin-1 antibody (Cat.-No.: AP06060PU-N) in paraffin-embedded human breast carcinoma tissue. Rabbit Aff - Purified Hu, Ms, Rt E, ICC/IF, P, WB
0.1 mg / €350.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Claudin-1 / CLDN1 (C-term) antibody

Liver: Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) Rabbit IgG Aff - Purified Can, Hu, Mky, Ms, Rt E, P, WB
50 µl / €470.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Claudin-1 / CLDN1 (Loop1) antibody

Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded human hepatocarcinoma tissue reacted with hCLDN1-Loop1, which was peroxidase-conjugated to the secondary antibody, followed by DAB staining. Rabbit Ig Purified Hu P, WB
0.4 ml / €370.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Claudin-1 / CLDN1 (Loop2) antibody

Western blot analysis of anti-hCLDN1-Loop2 Pab in mouse kidney tissue lysates (35ug/lane). CLDN1(arrow) was detected using the purified Pab (1:60 dilution). Rabbit Ig Purified Hu, Ms WB
0.4 ml / €370.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Claudin-1 / CLDN1 antibody

Formalin fixed paraffin embedded human skin stained with Claudin 1 antibody DP153 / DP153-05 Rabbit Purified Can, Hu, Ms, Rt C, P
1 ml / €600.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Claudin-1 / CLDN1 antibody

Formalin fixed paraffin embedded human skin stained with Claudin 1 antibody DP153 / DP153-05 Rabbit Purified Can, Hu, Ms, Rt C, P
0.5 ml / €400.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Claudin-1 / CLDN1 antibody

Human Liver; CLDN1 antibody - C-terminal region (ARP33623_P050) in Human Liver cells using Immunohistochemistry Rabbit Aff - Purified Bov, Can, Hu, Ms, Por, Rt P, WB
50 µg / €350.00
  AVIVA Systems Biology

Claudin-1 / CLDN1 antibody

Formalin fixed paraffin embedded human skin stained with Claudin 1 antibody. Rabbit IgG Aff - Purified Can, Hu, Mky, Ms, Rt P
0.5 ml / €400.00
  Novus Biologicals Inc.

Claudin-1 / CLDN1 antibody

Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Claudin 1 Antibody [NBP1-35652] - Human Skin Rabbit IgG Hu, Ms P, WB
1 ml / €590.00
  Novus Biologicals Inc.

Claudin-2 / CLDN2 antibody

Immunohistochemistry analysis of Claudin-2 Antibody (Cat.-No AP06063PU-N) in paraffin-embedded human breast carcinoma tissue. Rabbit Aff - Purified Hu, Ms P, WB
0.1 mg / €350.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Claudin-2 / CLDN2 (N-term) antibody

Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded human hepatocarcinoma tissue reacted with CLDN2 (Human N-term), which was peroxidase-conjugated to the secondary antibody, followed by DAB staining. Rabbit Ig Aff - Purified Hu P, WB
0.4 ml / €370.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Claudin-2 / CLDN2 (C-term) antibody

Western blot analysis of anti-CLDN2 Antibody (C-term) in mouse kidney tissue lysates (35ug/lane). CLDN2(arrow) was detected using the purified Pab (1:190 dilution). Rabbit Ig Aff - Purified Hu WB
0.4 ml / €370.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Claudin-2 / CLDN2 antibody

Human HepG2; WB Suggested Anti-CLDN2 Antibody Titration: 1.25ug/ml. Positive Control: HepG2 cell lysate; CLDN2 antibody - N-terminal region (ARP42845_T100) in Human HepG2 cells using Western Blot Rabbit Aff - Purified Bov, Can, Chk, Hu, Ms, Por, Rt WB
0.1 mg / €310.00
  AVIVA Systems Biology

Claudin-2 / CLDN2 antibody

Immunohistochemistry: Claudin 2 Antibody [NB100-91710] -  Claudin 2 (S219) antibody [NB100-91710] - in paraffin-embedded human breast carcinoma tissue Rabbit IgG Aff - Purified Hu, Ms P, WB
0.1 mg / €420.00
  Novus Biologicals Inc.

Claudin-3 / CLDN3 (C-term) antibody

AP15488PU Claudin-3 antibody staining of Human Small Intestine. Rabbit Purified Hu, Ms, Rt P
1 ml / €440.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Claudin-3 / CLDN3 (C-term) antibody

AP15488PU Claudin-3 antibody staining of Human Small Intestine. Rabbit Purified Hu, Ms, Rt P
0.1 ml / €180.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Claudin-3 / CLDN3 antibody

Immunohistochemistry analysis of  Claudin-3 Antibody (Cat.-No AP06064PU-N8 in paraffin-embedded human colon carcinoma tissue. Rabbit Aff - Purified Hu, Ms, Rt ICC/IF, P, WB
0.1 mg / €350.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

Claudin-3 / CLDN3 (C-term) antibody

Prostate: Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) Rabbit IgG Aff - Purified Hu, Ms, Rt P
50 µl / €470.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

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