GAD2 / GAD65 antibody

Principal name

GAD2 / GAD65 antibody

Alternative names for GAD2 / GAD65 antibody

GAD-2, GAD-65, Glutamate decarboxylase 2, Glutamate decarboxylase 65 kDa isoform, 65 kDa glutamic acid decarboxylase

SwissProt ID

P48320 (Mouse), P48321 (Pig), Q05329 (Human), Q05683 (Rat), Q42472 (Arath), Q4PRC2 (Canfa)

Gene ID

2572 (GAD2), 24380 (Gad2)

Available reactivities

Hu (Human), Rt (Rat), Mky (Monkey), Ms (Mouse), Por (Porcine), Chimp (Chimpanzee), Can (Canine)

Available hosts

Rabbit, Goat, Mouse

Available applications

Paraffin Sections (P), Western blot / Immunoblot (WB), Enzyme Immunoassay (E), ELISA (detection) (E(detection)), Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence (ICC/IF), Frozen Sections (C), Immunoprecipitation (IP), Flow Cytometry (F), Radioimmunoassay (R)

Background of GAD2 / GAD65 antibody

Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD) catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate to g-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, and a putative paracrine signal molecule in pancreatic islets.1, 3 GAD has a restricted tissue distribution. It is highly expressed in the cytoplasm of GABAergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and pancreatic -cells. It is also present in other non-neuronal tissues such as testis, oviduct and ovary.1-5 GAD is also transiently expressed in non-GABAergic cells of the embryonic and adult nervous system, suggesting its involvement in development and plasticity.6 GAD exists as two isoforms, GAD 65 and GAD 67 (molecular masses of 65 and 67 kD, respectively) that are encoded by two different genes.2,7,8 GAD65 is an ampiphilic, membraneanchored protein, (585 amino acid residues) and is encoded on human chromosome 10. GAD 67 is a cytoplasmic protein (594 amino acid residues) and is encoded on chromosome 2. There is 64% amino acid identity between the two isoforms, with the highest diversity located at the N-terminus, which in GAD 65 is required for targeting the enzyme to GABA-containing secretory vesicles. The two isoforms appear to have distinct intraneuronal distribution in the brain.9 GAD 65 has been identified as an autoantigen in insulindependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and stiff-man syndrome (SMS), 10,11 IDDM is an autoimmune disease that results from T cell mediated destruction of pancreatic insulin-secreting -cells. Islet-reactive T cells and antibodies primarily to GAD 65 (also named -cell autoantigen) can be detected in peripheral blood of 80% of recent-onset IDD patients and in pre-diabetic high-risk subjects before onset of clinical symptoms. This suggests that GAD may be an important marker in the early stages of the disease.11 Also, autoantibodies to GAD 65 and GAD 67 are detected in animal models of IDDM, including the non-obese diabetes (NOD) mouse. In the NOD mouse, T cell reactivity is initially restricted to the C-terminal regions of GAD 65, but later spreads to other parts of GAD 65.12,13 Stiff-man syndrome (SMS), a rare disorder of the CNS, is characterized by progressive rigidity of the body musculature with painful spasms, due to impairment of the GABAergic neurotransmission. High-titer autoantibodies directed against GAD 65 and GABAergic neurons (nerve terminals) have been detected in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in 60% of patients with the syndrome.14 Strikingly, many of the SMS patients also developed late-onset IDDM. Antibodies that react specifically with GAD 65 are useful for the study of the differential tissue expression and intracellular localization of this isoform in normal and disease conditions.

General readings

General / background references:Bu DF & Tobin AJ The exon-intron organization of the genes (GAD1 and GAD2) encoding two human glutamate decarboxylases (GAD67 and GAD65) suggests that they derive from a common ancestral GAD. Genomics 21:222-8 (1994). PubMed PMID: 8088791
Karlsen AE et al. Cloning and primary structure of a human islet isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase from chromosome 10. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88:8337-41 (1991). PubMed PMID: 1924293

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Primary Antibodies

Catalog No. Host Iso. Clone Pres. React. Applications  

GAD2 / GAD65 antibody

Sample (50 ug of whole cell lysate). A: mouse brain. 7.5% SDS PAGE. TA308367 diluted at 1:5000. Rabbit IgG Aff - Purified Hu, Ms, Rt ICC/IF, P, WB
0.1 ml / €325.00
  OriGene Technologies, Inc.

GAD2 / GAD65 (Center) antibody

GAD2 Antibody (Center) (Cat. #TA324381) western blot analysis in Jurkat cell line lysates (35ug/lane).This demonstrates the GAD2 antibody detected the GAD2 protein (arrow). Rabbit Ig Aff - Purified Hu ICC/IF, P, WB
0.4 ml / €325.00
  OriGene Technologies, Inc.

GAD2 / GAD65 antibody

TA303017 (0.1µg/ml) staining of Human Brain lysate (35µg protein in RIPA buffer).  Primary incubation was 1 hour.  Detected by chemiluminescence. Goat Aff - Purified Can, Chimp, Hu, Ms, Rt WB
0.1 mg / €325.00
  OriGene Technologies, Inc.

GAD2 / GAD65 antibody

Sample (20 ug of whole cell lysate). A: mouse brain. 7.5% SDS PAGE. TA308785 diluted at 1:10000. Rabbit IgG Aff - Purified Hu, Ms, Rt P, WB
0.1 ml / €325.00
  OriGene Technologies, Inc.

GAD2 / GAD65 antibody

Predicted band size: 65 kDa . Positive control: Brain tissue lysate. Recommended dilution: 1/500-2000. (Gel: 8%SDS-PAGE Lysate: 40 ug Primary antibody: 1/500 dilution Secondary antibody: Goat anti Rabbit IgG - H&L (HRP) at 1/10000 dilution Exposure time: 1 minute) Rabbit IgG Purified Hu, Ms, Rt WB
0.1 ml / €325.00
  OriGene Technologies, Inc.

GAD2 / GAD65 antibody

Predicted band size: 65 kDa . Positive control: Rat brain, Mouse brain tissue and Hela, 3T3 cells lysate. Recommended dilution: 1/ 500-1000. (Gel: 8%SDS-PAGE Lane1,2: Rat brain, Mouse brain tissue and Hela, 3T3 cells lysate Lysates: 30 ug per lane Primary antibody: 1/500 dilution Secondary antibody: Goat anti Rabbit IgG - H&L (HRP) at 1/10000 dilution Exposure time: 1 minute) Rabbit IgG Purified Hu, Ms, Rt WB
0.1 ml / €325.00
  OriGene Technologies, Inc.

GAD2 / GAD65 antibody

Predicted cell location: Cytoplasm. Positive control: Human colon cancer and brain tissue. Recommended dilution: 1/25-100  The image on the left is immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded Human colon cancer and brain tissue using GAD2 antibody at dilution 1/30, on the right is treated with the synthetic peptide. (Original magnification:x200) Rabbit IgG Purified Hu, Ms, Rt E, P
0.1 ml / €325.00
  OriGene Technologies, Inc.

GAD2 / GAD65 (515-528) antibody

Immunohistochemistry Image: Human Brain, cerebellum: Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) Goat Aff - Purified Bear, Bt, Can, Elephant, Eq, Hst, Hu, Mky, Ms, Prim, Rb, Rt E, P, WB
50 µg / €470.00
  Acris Antibodies GmbH

GAD2 / GAD65 antibody

GAD2 MaxPab polyclonal antibody. Western Blot analysis of GAD2 expression in rat brain. Mouse Serum Hu, Rt E(detection), WB
50 µl / €370.00
  Abnova Taiwan Corp.

GAD2 / GAD65 antibody

GAD2 / GAD65 Mouse Purified Hu, Rt E(detection), WB
50 µg / €370.00
  Abnova Taiwan Corp.

GAD2 / GAD65 antibody

GAD2 / GAD65 Rabbit Serum Hu, Ms IP, WB
0.1 ml / €380.00
  Abnova Taiwan Corp.

GAD2 / GAD65 antibody

GAD2 MaxPab rabbit polyclonal antibody. Western Blot analysis of GAD2 expression in mouse kidney. Rabbit Purified Hu, Ms E(detection), WB
0.1 mg / €380.00
  Abnova Taiwan Corp.

GAD2 / GAD65 antibody

GAD2 / GAD65 Mouse IgG2a 3G3 Hu E, WB
0.1 mg / €370.00
  Abnova Taiwan Corp.

GAD2 / GAD65 antibody

GAD2 polyclonal antibody ( Cat # PAB6778 ) ( 0.1 µg/ml ) staining of human brain lysate ( 35 µg protein in RIPA buffer ) . Primary incubation was 1 hour. Detected by chemiluminescence. Goat Hu E, WB
0.1 mg / €400.00
  Abnova Taiwan Corp.

GAD2 / GAD65 antibody

GAD2 / GAD65 Rabbit Hu C
0.1 ml / €390.00
  Abnova Taiwan Corp.

GAD2 / GAD65 antibody

GAD2 / GAD65 Rabbit IgG Aff - Purified Hu, Ms, Rt P, WB
0.1 mg / €290.00
  Boster Immunoleader

GAD2 / GAD65 antibody

GAD65 Antibody [144] Mouse IgG1 144 Purified Hu, Ms, Rt F, IP, R, WB
0.1 ml / €400.00
  Immuquest

GAD2 / GAD65 antibody

GAD2 / GAD65 Goat IgG Aff - Purified Hu C, E, WB
0.1 mg / €450.00
  Neuromics Antibodies

GAD2 / GAD65 antibody

Western Blot: GAD65 Antibody [NB100-1506] - NB100-1506 (0.1ug/ml) staining of Human Brain lysate (35ug protein in RIPA buffer). Primary incubation was 1 hour. Detected by chemiluminescence. Goat Aff - Purified Hu E, WB
0.1 mg / €400.00
  Novus Biologicals Inc.

GAD2 / GAD65 antibody

GAD2 / GAD65 Rabbit IgG Serum Hu, Mky, Ms, Por, Rt P, WB
0.1 ml / €550.00
  Novus Biologicals Inc.

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